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Subject and Verb Agreement

 and Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement

Below, you can see a truckload of rules about subject-verb agreement and a few on pronouns and their antecendent agreement.  However, on the retired ACT tests I've perused, the only tested rules I've found for subject and verb agreement are 7b and 7c.  They keep it pretty simple and don't look at the exceptions.  Consquently, as long as you can identify singular and plural subjects, regardless of how far they are from their verb, and singular and plural verbs, you're in good shape.

A pronoun has to have a noun to replace, its antecedent.  Some questions show pronouns with no antecedent and let you choose an option to fix that problem.  Others have pronouns that don't match their antecedent.


(The number-lettering of these rules corresponds to the Warriner's text you probably used in Junior English.)

General Rules

7a.  A word that refers to one person or thing is singular in number.  A word that refers to more than one is plural in number.

7b.  A verb agrees with its subject in number.  Most verbs that end in a single s are singular while those that don't are plural.  Think of s standing for singular when added to a verb : runs, walks, thinks, does, etc. 
Some singular verbs naturally end in s: was, is, has, etc.

7c.  The number of the subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject. 

7f.  Either singular or plural depending on the meaning:  some, any, none, all, and most. [Memorize these.]


Singular rules Either Plural rules
7d.  Singular pronouns:  each, either, neither, one, no one, every one, anyone, someone, everyone, anybody, somebody, and everybody.  (Note the one and body portions) 7f.  Either depending on the meaning:  some, any, none, all, and most [Memorize these.]
7e.  Plural pronouns:  several, few, both, many
7c.  Singular subjects followed by phrases beginning with, together with, as well as, in addition to, and accompanied by take singular verbs.


7h.  Singular subjects joined by
or or nor take a singular verb.
7i.  When a singular and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the nearer subject 7g.  Subjects joined by and take a plural verb.
7l.  Expressions stating amount (time, money, measurement, weight, volume, fractions) are usually singular when the amount is considered as a unit.    However, when it’s important to
call attention to them as separate units, use a plural verb. 

7j.  Don't be fooled by an inverted order of subject and verb.


7m.  The title of a book or the name of an organization or country even in plural form usually takes a singular verb.  (When you're thinking of the individuals of an organization, use a plural verb.)

7k.  Collective nouns may be singular or plural.


7n.  A few nouns, such as mumps, measles, civics, economics, mathematics, and physics, take singular verbs. 7o.  When the subject and predicate nominative differ in number, the verb agrees with the subject.

7p.  Every or many a before a subject is followed by a singular verb.


7q. Doesn’t is singular
7q. Don’t is plural, but use it with I and you.


7r.  Verbs that follow one of those are plural.
7s.  The number of...singular

7sA number of... plural.


7t.  Pronouns and antecedents agree in number and gender.

(1.)  Singular antecedents take singular pronouns.
(2.)  Two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor require singular pronouns.
(3.)  Two or more antecedents joined by and require a plural pronoun.     

After the words if and wish, use were, not was.  “If I were to go, who would go with me?”  “I wish I were going, too.”